Cusco is a city of about 350,000 in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capitol of the Cusco region as well as the Cuzco province, and is also the historical capitol of the Inca Empire. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1983 by UNESCO.
From about 900- 1200 the Killke occupied the region, and they were followed by the Incas (1300s-1532). Then, between 1527-1536, Cusco was controlled by many different rulers. In 1527 Huayna Capac died and his empire was divided, and the city fell under the control of Huáscar. It was then captured by the generals of Atahualpa in 1532 (Battle of Quipaipan), and a year and a half later Spaniards captured it (in the Battle of Cuzco)- renaming it to Cuzco in the process. In 1536 it was briefly (a few days) retaken by Manco Inca Yupanqui during the Siege of Cuzco. The Spanish then reclaimed it more permanently, and it became the center of Spanish colonization. Then, much later in 1821, Peru declared independence. Cusco was made the capitol of the new department of Cuzco, and has since become the most important city in the southeastern Andean region.
Oops- I almost forgot to mention that Cusco was also used as the base for the expedition of Hiram Bingham in 1911 to find Machu Picchu, which is why it is now a major tourist destination (and why my friend Ronna found herself in the market of Cusco looking for honey).
Cusco has a subtropical highland climate. It is generally dry and temperate, with a dry season (April to October) and a wet season (November to March). A bit of trivia:
In 2006 Cusco was found to have the highest ultraviolet light level on Earth.
I (and Ronna) have no idea what kind of honey she bought. It came in a small plastic cup with a lid, and no label. She bought it from a crowded market stall in the large local market from a fellow who could only say that it was local and produced by native Peruvians. She did take a photo of the fellow and his stall- but this is all I have to go on (see below).
I found one site that gave information about Peruvian honey production [http://www.apiservices.com/articles/us/fert/incas.htm]. According to the site, most honey is produced in the Amazon rainforest region. In fact, honey production is being promoted in this area as an alternative to growing coca crops, the source of cocaine. In the plateau region, where Cusco is, there is also honey production, but it is generally a smaller, family operation, with a family having a few hives to make some extra money. These small, family outfits are organized as micro-cooperatives and are mainly run by women. It seems that given the climate and floral sources available, honey production has real potential in the area, but poor road conditions hinder moving bees around.
Of interest, before Europeans arrived, there were no honey bees (Apis mellifera) in the Americas, but there was beekeeping and honey. The honey was produced by a small, stingless bee called mellipona. Some Peruvians continue to gather honey from this local bee, called 'palo honey.'
The usual floral sources for honey in Peru are: carob trees, cotton plants, Eucalyptus, tangerine trees, mango trees, orange trees, and loquat trees (also known as Japanese medlar). I wasn't familiar with loquat trees or fruit, and found out that the fruit is very sweet and tastes like a cross between passion fruit and a guava.
But back to the honey that Ronna got me. It is a very thin, clear and runny honey. It has a clear, mellow honey color. In fact, just looking at it I would say it looks a lot like clover honey, but maybe a bit runnier. The first clue that it is NOT a run of the mill table honey, though, is the smell. It smells like pineapple(!) And the taste is so unexpected- It has an INCREDIBLE exotic, fruity taste. It is like a mix of pineapple and papaya or maybe mango- or maybe loquat? I've never tasted a loquat, so I can't be sure, but it sure tastes like what I'd imagine an exotic fruit to taste like. The after taste is a clean, slightly lemony citrus flavor. It reminds me a little of juicy fruit gum- which I haven't had since I was a kid, but who can forget that flavor? I've never tasted a honey quite like it. I'm convincing myself that it is loquat honey; I've had Eucalyptus, tangerine and orange honey, and it doesn't taste anything like it. Given the color and the fact that it is reported to be harvested by native Peruvians, do you think it might also be 'palo honey'?
If you know anything about Peruvian honey from the Cusco region, I'd like to hear from you! And if you don't know anything about Peruvian honey but find yourself in Cusco, go to the market, find the man who sells this honey (feel free to carry a copy his photo around) and don't leave until you have some answers. This honey is fantastic and too good to remain anonymous. Unfortunately, the only way to get it is to go to the market at Cusco.